Glutathione is considered to be one of the most important and abundant cellular antioxidants in the body.

It is critical for regulating oxidative stress, detoxification and immune function and is most concentrated in the liver, where it is involved in the detoxification process.   As paracetamol is almost completely metabolised by the liver, up to 96%, it relies upon abundant levels of glutathione to perform this vital function.

Paracetamol (or acetaminophen) is one of the most extensively used analgesics/antipyretics in the world and, although it’s considered a safe drug when taken as recommended, there is a well established link between paracetamol toxicity and liver failure.

Paracetamol depletes glutathione

There is an established link between paracetamol toxicity and liver failure.

Although hepatic failure and death are uncommon outcomes, paracetamol remains the most important, single cause of acute, severe and sudden onset of hepatic failure in western countries.

One of the mechanisms by which the overuse of paracetamol can cause acute liver failure is its ability to deplete the antioxidant glutathione.

In the presence of paracetamol, the concentration of glutathione decreases by as much as 80-90%.  It is shown that once your liver uses more than 30% of your total store of glutathione, you are already in trouble with increasing hepatocyte destruction.  This can be as a result from both reduced glutathione stores as well as a toxic metabolite of paracetamol breakdown N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI)

These adverse effects experienced as a result of ingesting paracetamol above therapeutic doses is due to how it is detoxified through the liver. Approximately 90% is metabolised to inactive sulfate and glucuronide conjugates that are then excreted in the urine.  It’s the metabolism of the remainder, via cytochrome P450, that results in the liver becoming acutely saturated with NAPQI.

In normal conditions NAPQI is immediately bound by intracellular glutathione and eliminated in the urine, but with increased paracetamol doses this greater production of NAPQI further depletes glutathione stores.

Detoxification of NAPQI by conjugation with hepatic glutathione may be further impaired in the setting of malnutrition, recent fasting, an adult weight of under 50kg or advanced cirrhosis. These patients may, therefore, already be at higher risk of paracetamol toxicity.

The sulfhydryl donor N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor for glutathione, speeds up the detoxification of NAPQI and is the only approved agent on the market for treatment of paracetamol overdose.

Thus, early diagnosis and the use of NAC can considerably improve outcomes of patients who present with toxicity.


Article sourced from FX Medicine

Food sources high in L-Methylfolate (Folate)

Food sources high in L-Methylfolate (Folate) Activated form of (Folic Acid)

Most leafy green plant sources contain approximately 80% of folate in the active L-methylfolate form.  In other words all of the folate in green plant sources is reduced (ready to be methylated if not already methylated).

Virtually none of the folate in fresh food is folic acid which is considered to be harmful to those with the MTHFR Gene Mutation.

Green smoothies containing raw spinach or kale and organic strawberries are a folate powerhouse.

Green smoothies containing raw spinach or kale and organic strawberries are a folate powerhouse.


Grains such as wheat, corn and rice are low in folate, resulting in low folate status in most people.

Meat is generally low in folate, except for liver, which is high in non-methylated (not 5-MTHF) folate.

L-methylfolate is essential for brain health – raw or lightly cooked dark leafy greens, cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and other fresh vegetables are required for a healthy happy brain.

Foods high in L-methylfolate (Folate)

  • Sprouted legumes (e.g. mung bean, lentil, chickpea, whitebeans)
  • Spinach
  • Romaine Lettuce
  • Cauliflower
  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli
  • Kale
  • Cabbage
  • Strawberries (and other berries)
  • Blueberries
  • Oranges, grapefruit, and their juices
  • Fermented foods such as kefir, water kefir, sauerkraut
  • Brewer’s yeast
  • Peas
  • Sweet peppers

Dried legumes such as lentils, chickpeas, and white beans have the highest folate concentration of any food, however they are mostly in the non-methylated form.  Sprouting legumes for four days causes a 3 – 4 x increase in total folate, a near-complete conversion of the folate to L-methylfolate, and a spike in vitamin C content that protects and stabilizes the 5-MTHF.

Eating legumes sprouted for 4 days is quite possibly the single most powerful way of increasing your body’s supply of L-methylfolate (aside from 5-MTHF supplementation).

Eating legumes sprouted for 4 days is quite possibly the single most powerful and natural way of increasing your body’s supply of L-methylfolate (aside from 5-MTHF supplementation).


Green smoothies containing raw spinach or kale and organic strawberries are a folate powerhouse. Vitamin C in foods powerfully protects folate from breaking down. Hence, foods with both folate and vitamin C (such as broccoli and citrus) are super sources of L-methylfolate.

Other sources of  L-methylfolate

Bacteria and yeasts are folate factories, and hence fermented foods are excellent sources of active folate.

L-methylfolate (5-MTHF) supplements are rapidly gaining in popularity because they work.

If you have MTHFR gene mutations, eating fresh folate-rich foods every day becomes even more important, however supplementation may also be required.


Berries fresh or frozen never lose their folate

Berries fresh or frozen never lose their folate


Effects of food processing on folate

Folate (L-methylfolate included) is relatively fragile and degrades when food is processed, therefore it is important to buy fresh green vegetables (primarily leafy greens and cruciferous) from the fresh produce department.  Organic vegetables are the preferred choice especially for those who are sensitive to pesticides.

Berries fresh or frozen never lose their folate and can remain frozen for up to 5 months.

Vegetables as close to their raw state as possible is best for folate availability.  Lightly steamed vegetables preserve the folate.  Boiling vegetables leeches the folate into the water.  Avoid boiling unless the water will be used in a soup where the liquid is also consumed.

 Article sourced from mindwhale

8 Amazing Spices

You most likely have at least several, if not all of the following spices in your kitchen cupboard. They are tasty and we use them to create all sorts of beautiful meals and desserts. But maybe you don’t know some of their amazing qualities that extend to outside of their incredible flavours and aromas.



Cayenne contains Capsaicin. this is the active ingredient in cayenne. Researchers have recently been studying its role in curbing our blood sugar levels and perhaps it’s potential to help manage diabetes. History suggests it has been thought to act as an antioxidant agent and also as anti-inflammatory.


Cinnamon has been found to have high levels of calcium and iron. Copenhagen University have been conducting a study that showed that a small amount of cinnamon with a small amount of honey every morning offers relief in arthritis pain. Just like Cayenne there is a potential for cinnamon to offer help and support with our blood glucose levels. It has a great taste and is often used by those with type 2 diabetes and as a weight loss aid because it offers a sweetness without the sugar.


The combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties spells heaps of health benefits, including possibly boosting protection from heart disease. And like cinnamon and cayenne, cloves may also be helpful in improving insulin function.


We all know how awesome Garlic is! It’s used often in cooking for a great base to warding off colds, flu’s and in some cases vampires! All joking aside, Garlic is an amazing spice as it contains Allicin – this a sulphur that is believed to the reason garlic is so popular for is medicinal benefits. It’s been shown that eating garlic helps reduce cholesterol levels and lowers the risk of heart disease.


Fresh ginger has potent antioxidant properties and again has been used for a long time because of it’s strong anti-inflammatory properties.


This is a must for pasta lovers! We all love to throw a pinch in for that delish spaghetti bolognese taste. This gorgeous spice contains something called anti-microbial compounds. This means it has the potential to fight and kill microorganisms.


It may be expensive, but saffron offers great health benefits along with its culinary properties. This spice contains active components, including carotenoids like zeaxanthin, lycopene and carotenes which contribute to healthy cells.


Turmeric is well known for its bright yellow colour and earthly flavour. Studies show that it contains an active compound called curcumin. It has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine to treat liver disorders, poor digestion, inflammation, arthritis, fevers, menstrual problems and skin disorders.

When cooking next maybe you will think twice about what amazing spices you can use in your creation!